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For the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Study, National Investigation Council 2003) and were and had been approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the University of Barcelona (670/14/8102, authorized at 14 November 2014) and by Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain (10291, approved at 28 January 2018). Informed Consent Statement: Not applicable. Data Availability Statement: Not applicable. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. The funders had no part within the study’s style, inside the collection, analyses, or interpretation of information, inside the writing from the manuscript, or in the choice to publish the outcomes.
Journal ofClinical MedicineReviewMicrobiome δ Opioid Receptor/DOR Inhibitor web metabolites and Thyroid DysfunctionPiotr Bargiel 1 , Malgorzata Szczuko two , Laura Stachowska 2 , Piotr Prowans 1 , Norbert Czapla 1 , Marta Markowska 1 , Jan Petriczko 1 , Jakub Kledzik 1 , Alicja J drzejczyk-Kledzik 1 , Joanna Palma three , e Paulina Zabielska 4 and Dominika Maciejewska-Markiewicz two, Department of Plastic, Endocrine and Common Surgery, Pomeranian Health-related University in Szczecin, Siedlecka 2, 72-010 Police, Poland; [email protected] (P.B.); [email protected] (P.P.); [email protected] (N.C.); [email protected] (M.M.); [email protected] (J.P.); [email protected] (J.K.); [email protected] (A.J.-K.) Division of Human Nutrition and Metabolomics, Pomeranian Healthcare University in Szczecin, 71-460 Szczecin, Poland; [email protected] (M.S.); [email protected] (L.S.) Department of Biochemical Science, Pomeranian Healthcare University in Szczecin, 71-460 Szczecin, Poland; [email protected] Subdepartment of Social Medicine and Public Well being, Department of Social Medicine, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 71-210 Szczecin, Poland; [email protected] Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: +48-91-441-Citation: Bargiel, P.; Szczuko, M.; Stachowska, L.; Prowans, P.; Czapla, N.; Markowska, M.; Petriczko, J.; Kledzik, J.; J drzejczyk-Kledzik, A.; e Palma, J.; et al. Microbiome Metabolites and Thyroid Dysfunction. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 3609. https:// doi.org/10.3390/jcm10163609 Academic Editors: Anastasios Koulaouzidis, Wojciech Marlicz and Karolina Skonieczna-Zydecka Received: 14 July 2021 Accepted: 13 August 2021 Published: 16 AugustAbstract: Thyroid diseases are prevalent conditions which have a unfavorable influence on the well being of all populations. The literature sheds light around the differences inside the composition on the intestinal microbiota in individuals suffering from thyroid ailments in comparison to RGS8 Inhibitor Synonyms wholesome folks. The microbiome impacts the proper functioning in the thyroid gland, and also the existence of your gut hyroid axis is discussed within the context of each thyroid diseases and intestinal dysbiosis. The objective of this review is always to describe associations between the microbiome and its metabolites and thyroid dysfunction. We try to clarify the function in the microbiome in the metabolism of thyroid hormones along with the influence of thyroid autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, we raise challenges related to the influence of bacterial metabolites, which include short-chain fatty acids or secondary bile acids, in the functioning from the thyroid gland. Final but not least, we explored the interactions involving the gut microbiota and therapeutics and supplements ordinarily administered to patients with thyroid illnesses. Key phrases: microbiome; thyroid dysfunction; microbiome metabolites; dysbiosi.