Mon. Mar 4th, 2024

RRNA genes within the preceding interphase. The black oval represents a chromomere in which rRNA genes are assembled into dense heterochromatin. Inside a. thaliana, insertions/deletions in the 39 external transcribed region define rRNA gene BRD4 Modulator Formulation variant sorts. (B) Localization of rRNA genes (rDNA) and Pol I. DNA-FISH employing an rRNA gene probe (red signals) and immunolocalization of Flag-tagged Pol I making use of an anti-Flag antibody (green signals) were performed in a. thaliana interphase nuclei. DNA was counterstained with DAPI (gray signals). (C) Subnuclear localization of rRNA genes, pre-rRNA transcripts, and Flag-tagged HDA6. rRNA gene or transcript FISH signals are shown in green, immunolocalized HDA6 is in red, and DAPI-stained DNA is in blue. Merged signals are shown in the correct column. (D) DNA-FISH detection of rRNA genes in wild-type (Col-0) and hda6 nuclei. rRNA gene FISH signals are shown in red and are merged using the DAPI (blue) image in the ideal column. (E) Detection of rRNA gene variant types and their transcripts by PCR employing genomic DNA or reversetranscribed (RT) cDNA of wild-type (Col-0) or hda6 plants. The amplified area is shown within a. (F) Leaf cell homogenate of a FIB2:YFP plant stained with DAPI and subjected to fluorescence microscopy. Chloroplasts fluoresce red, DAPI-stained DNA is blue, and CYP1 Activator web nucleolar FIB2:YFP is green. (G) Purified nuclei obtained by FANS. (H) Purified nucleoli obtained by FANoS. (I) PCR detection of rRNA gene variant types in DNA of purified nuclei (N) or nucleoli (No) of wild-type (Col-0) or hda6 plants. The PCR amplicon is shown in a.and variant 1 genes are silenced (Fig. 1E, RT CR primer locations are shown in a). Even so, in hda6-6 or hda6-7 mutants, all variant subtypes are expressed (Fig. 1E). To identify no matter if both active and silenced rRNA genes are associated with nucleoli, we performed fluorescence-activated sorting of whole nuclei or isolated nucleoli from plants expressing the nucleolar protein FIBRILLARIN2 fused to YFP (yellow fluorescent protein) (Barneche et al. 2000). FIB2:YFP localizes particularly within the nucleolus, as shown in Figure 1F. Fluorescence-activated nuclear sorting (FANS) of cell homogenates yielded homogeneous nuclei (Fig. 1G; Supplemental Fig. S1A). Alternatively, cell extracts were sonicated to disrupt nuclei and after that subjected to fluorescence-activated nucleolar sorting (FANoS), yielding nucleoli cost-free of intact nuclei, other organelles, or cellular debris (Fig. 1H; Supplemental Fig. S1B,C). rRNA gene subtypes in isolated nuclei or nucleoli were identified by PCR amplification utilizing primers flanking the variable region (see Fig. 1A). All variant sorts are present in nuclei of wild-type Col-0 or hda6 mutants, as expected (Fig. 1I). On the other hand, in nucleoli of wild-type plants, variant 2- and 3-type rRNA genes are enriched (Fig. 1I, top rated row), correlating with their selective expression (see Fig. 1E). In hda6 mutants, in which variant 1 gene silencing does not take place, variant 1 genes are also present in nucleoli (Fig. 1I, bottom row). Collectively, these results indicate that rRNA genes are present in nucleoli when active and are excluded from nucleoli when silenced.MET1-dependent CG methylation is implicated in rRNA gene subtype silencing Within a. thaliana, cytosine methylation at CG motifs is maintained by MET1 (the ortholog of mammalian DNMT1), CHG methylation (where H can be a, T, or C) is maintained by CMT3, and RNA-directed CHH methylation is mediated by DRM2, whose paralog, DRM1, m.