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P65/NF-B within a time-dependent manner (Figure 4A). The peak of activation for every kinase varied, such as p38 peaked at 30 minutes post LPS stimulation, JNK1/2 and p65 peaked at 1 hour. Pretreatment with paroxetine in BV2 cells markedly blocked LPS-inducedATime 0 p-p38 p38 LPS 15 30 60 120 PAR LPS 0 15 30 60 120 (min)BRelative ratio of p-JNK/JNK12080 LPS PARLPS60 40 20 0 Time 120 1000 LPS PAR 15 30 60 120 (min)p-JNK1/2 JNK1/CRelative ratio of p-ERK/ERKp-ERK1/LPSERK1/ p-p65 p40 20 0 Time120 (min)Figure 4 Effect of paroxetine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated activation of MAPK and NF-B in BV2 cells. Cells had been pretreated with five M paroxetine for 30 minutes followed by the remedy of LPS at 100 ng/mL for 0, 15, 30, 60 or 120 minutes. (A) Representative images of CYP3 medchemexpress Western blot for the activation of p38, JNK1/2, ERK1/2 and p65/NF-B. The levels of p-JNK1/2 (B) and p-ERK1/2 (C) had been quantified and normalized with their respective total JNK1/2 or Erk1/2 levels. Every single worth was then expressed relative to the 1 treated with LPS alone for 60 minutes, which was set as 100. P 0.05 versus treated with LPS alone within the identical time point. Values are signifies ?SE of 3 independent experiments. PAR, paroxetine; LPS, lipopolysaccharide.Liu et al. Journal of Neuroinflammation 2014, 11:47 jneuroinflammation/content/11/1/Page 6 ofJNK1/2 activation, but showed little influence on the activation of p38 and p65 kinases (Figure 4A and B).Paroxetine inhibits LPS-induced microglial activation through JNK and ERK pathwaysSince paroxetine inhibited LPS-induced JNK activation as well as baseline ERK1/2 activity, we then asked no matter if the inhibitory impact of paroxetine on microglial activation is by means of JNK and (or) ERK pathways. We investigated the effect of precise JNK inhibitor SP600125 and distinct ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 on LPS-induced NO production and pro-inflammatory cytokines in BV2 cells. SP600125 and U0126 have been firstly verified for their abilities to block JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation, respectively, in BV2 cells (Figure 5A). Pretreatment with SP600125 significantly suppressed LPS-induced NO production by 82.three . In contrast, U0126 showed no effect around the NO production. In line with all the regulation on NO production, LPS-induced iNOS expression was blocked by SP600125, but not by U0126 (Figure 5B). On the other hand, both SP600125 and U0126 blunted LPS-induced cytokine up-regulation. SP600125 pretreatment resulted within a significantAp-JNK1/2 JNK1/Microtubule/Tubulin site controlSPLPSLPS+SPB15 12 9 6 3 0 handle SP LPSNO ( M)LPS+SP9NO ( M)3control U0126 LPS LPS+Ucontrol U0126 LPSp-ERK1/LPS+Ucontrol iNOSERK1/SPLPSLPS+SPiNOScontrolULPSLPS+U-actin-actinCTNF-actincontrolSPLPSLPSSPIL-controlSPLPSLPSSP-actinRelative mRNA ratio of TNF- / -actinRelative mRNA ratio of IL-1 / -actin 80200 control manage SP U0126 LPS LPS LPS+SP LPS Ucontrol control IL-1 -actinRelative mRNA ratio of IL-1 / -actinSP ULPS LPS LPSLPS+SP UTNF–actinRelative mRNA ratio of TNF- / -actin8060control U0126 LPS LPS+UcontrolULPSLPS+UFigure 5 Inhibition of JNK or ERK signaling on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated microglia activation. (A) Inhibitory impact of SP600125 and U0126 on JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation. BV2 cells had been treated with SP600125 (20 M) or U0126 (10 M) for 30 minutes before LPS remedy (100 ng/mL) for a single hour. (B) Measurement of NO production in culture media (upper panel) and Western blot analysis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression (decrease panel). Cells have been pretreated with SP60.