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Ve 0 mV and is because of the Lumican/LUM Protein Formulation increase of a standing
Ve 0 mV and is as a result of increase of a standing inward cationic present (carried preferentially by Na ions) present in glomus cells (Figures 1G,H) (Garcia-Fernandez et al., 2007). Certainly, in contrast with hypoxia, low glucose decreases the membrane resistance of glomus cells recorded with the perforated patch configuration from the patch clamp technique to 50 of handle (Gonz ez-Rodr uez and L ez-Barneo, unpublished final results). As reported by other individuals (Carpenter and Peers, 2001), the background Na present plays a significant function in chemotransduction by glomus cells as it sets the membrane possible to somewhat depolarized levels, close to the threshold for the opening of Ca2 channels.Frontiers in Physiology | Integrative PhysiologyOctober 2014 | Volume 5 | Write-up 398 |Gao et al.Carotid physique glucose sensing and diseaseFIGURE 1 | Counter-regulatory response to hypoglycemia in rat carotid physique (CB) slices and isolated glomus cells. A representative secretory response (A) and typical secretion price (B) induced by glucopenia in glomus cells from CB slices (n = three). (C) Abolition of the secretory response to hypoglycemia by one hundred M Cd2 . A representative depolarizing receptor prospective (D) and typical membrane prospective (E) induced by 0 glucose in CB glomus cells (n = 25). (F) Reversible ER alpha/ESR1, Human (His) enhance in cytosolic Ca2 concentration inside a Fura-2-loaded glomus cell in response to 0 glucose. (G) Abolition ofglucose-induced raise in current (Icontrol-I0glu) by replacement of extracellular Na with N-methyl-D-glucamine (0 Na ) in voltage-clamped glomus cells (n = three). (H) Inhibition of 0 glucose-induced depolarization (Vcontrol-V0glu) by replacement of extracellular Na with N-methyl-D-glucamine (0 Na ) in current-clamped glomus cells (n = three). To compensate for the hyperpolarization induced by 0 Na , Vm was changed manually towards the previous resting worth (arrow) p 0.05 (Modified from Garcia-Fernandez et al., 2007).GLUCOSE TRANSPORT AND METABOLISM In the CAROTID Body For the duration of LOW GLUCOSE SENSINGThe mechanism of low glucose sensing by CB glomus cells does not appear to be the identical as higher glucose sensing by other glucosesensing cells with regards to glucose transport and metabolism.Glut2 and glucokinase, molecules particularly expressed in higher glucose-sensing cells (Schuit et al., 2001; Thorens, 2001), are usually not expressed inside the CB (Garcia-Fernandez et al., 2007). Nevertheless, glucose metabolism seems to be essential for low glucose sensing by the CB, because non-metabolizable glucose fails to prevent thefrontiersin.orgOctober 2014 | Volume 5 | Report 398 |Gao et al.Carotid body glucose sensing and diseaseglucose deficiency-induced catecholamine secretion by glomus cells (Garcia-Fernandez et al., 2007).REGULATION OF CAROTID Body LOW GLUCOSE SENSINGSIMILARITIES AND Differences Among LOW GLUCOSE AND O2 SENSINGO2 and low-glucose sensing by the CB share several similarities. Both signaling pathways involve the inhibition of voltagegated K channels, plasma membrane depolarization, influx of extracellular Ca2 , neurotransmitter release, and afferent nerve firing to transmit the signal towards the brain, so as to trigger counter-regulatory responses to increase blood O2 tension and glucose concentration. However, the initial actions of the signaling pathways are unique for every single. Low glucose triggers a depolarizing receptor prospective, which can be dependent on the activation of background cationic Na -permeable channels (Garcia-Fernandez et al., 2007), which usually do not appear to become regula.