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Ce have already been reported. The study of Leishmania also discovered differential expression of enolase in resistant parasites, suggesting that enolase might defend parasites from oxidative tension by giving them a mechanism to take care of drug pressure (Singh and Sundar, 2017). Hence, we speculated that the hugely expressed EtENO2 in drug-resistant strains could be involved in countering drug stress, advertising drug efflux from cells to minimize the effective intracellular drug concentration in cells, and offering energy support. Nonetheless, this calls for further study. To further confirm the expression levels of EtENO2 in diverse drugresistant strains, we employed qRT-PCR to detect the expression levels of various drug-resistant strains isolated from the field. EtENO2 was significantly upregulated in these wild-type drug-resistant strains compared with the DS strains. Nonetheless, the expression amount of EtENO2 within the field drug-resistant strains had a gap compared using the laboratory-induced DZR strains. We speculated this could be since the wild strains we obtained showed resistance to diclazuril but were not entirely resistant to higher concentrations of diclazuril. Their diverse sensitivities to drugs may possibly bring about different expression levels. We suspected that the improvement of drug resistance as well as the elevated expression of EtENO2 in drug-resistant strains were brought on by gene mutations. It has been shown that mutations in genes of drug-resistant Plasmodium strains increase their expression (Kasturi et al., 2018). We performed the whole genome resequencing evaluation of resistant strains, but found no mutation in EtENO2 (data unpublished). Therefore, drug resistance may very well be brought on by other mechanisms, for example mutations in other genes encoding proteins that interact with EtENO2, amino acid substitution, and adjustments in gene transporters, which require further study.Hemoglobin subunit alpha/HBA1, Human (His) Along with ENO2, other glycolytic enzymes have also been related with drug resistance.Androgen receptor Protein Storage & Stability Huang et al.PMID:23626759 (2022) identified that the expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was drastically upregulated in the resistant strains of E. tenella In our previous study, we also located that hexokinase and lactate dehydrogenase were upregulated in MRR compared with DS strain of E. tenella (Xie et al., 2020).Y. Yu et al.International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance 21 (2023) 81dehydrogenase from Eimeria tenella. Parasitol. Res. 121 (6), 1749760. doi. org/10.1007/s00436-022-07508-5. Jiang, L.L., Lin, J.J., Han, H.Y., Zhao, Q.P., Dong, H., Zhu, S.H., Huang, B., 2012. Identification and partial characterization of a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) of Eimeria tenella. Parasitol. Res. 110 (two), 86574. doi.org/10.1007/s00436011-2568-0. Kasturi, H., Souvik, B., Innocent, S., 2018. Drug resistance in Plasmodium. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 16 (three), 15670. doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro.2017.161. Khalafalla, R.E., Daugschies, A., 2010. Single oocyst infection: a easy approach for isolation of Eimeria spp. in the mixed field samples. Parasitol. Res. 107 (1), 18788. doi.org/10.1007/s00436-010-1840-z. Labb M., P oval, M., Bourdieu, C., Girard-Misguich, F., P y, P., 2006. Eimeria tenella e e e enolase and pyruvate kinase: a most likely function in glycolysis and in other folks functions. Int. J. Parasitol. 36 (14), 1443452. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2006.08.011. Livak, K.J., Schmittgen, T.D., 2001. Analysis of relative gene expression information making use of realtime quantitative PCR along with the 2( delta delta C(T)) system. Med.